Definitions of Metal Terms

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AGING IN A METAL OR ALLOY, A CHANGE IN PROPERTIES THAT GENERALLY OCCURS SLOWLY AT ROOM TEMPERATURES.
ALCLAD COMPOSITE SHEET PRODUCED BY BONDING EITHER CORROSION- RESISTANT ALUMINUM ALLOY OR ALUMINUM OF A HIGHER PURITY TO BASE METAL OF STRUCTURALLY STRONGER ALUMINUM ALLOY.
ALLOY STEEL STEEL CONTAINING SIGNIFICANT QUANTITIES OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS (OTHER THAN CARBON AND THE COMMONLY ACCEPTED AMOUNTS OF MANGANESE, SULFUR AND PHOSPHORUS) ADDED TO EFFECT PHYSICAL OR MECHANICAL CHANGES IN THE STEEL.
ANNEALNG THE SOFTENING OF A STEEL BY HEATING AND HOLDING AT A SUITABLE TEMPERATURE AND COOLING AT A SUITABLE RATE (DEPENDING ON ALLOY).
ANODIZING THE PROCESS OF MAKING A PROTECTIVE COATING TO ALUMINUM BY ANODIC OXIDATION.
ARTIFICIAL AGING AN AGING TREATMENT ABOVE ROOM TEMP.
AUSTENITIC STAINLESS NORMALLY REFERS TO THE NICKEL BEARING NON- MAGNETIC , NON-HEAT TREATABLE GRADES. THE 300 SERIES.
BEADING RAISING A RIDGE ON SHEET METAL.
BELLY A FULLNESS IN CROSS SECTION OF FOIL, EITHER CENTER OR EDGES.
BEND TEST VARIOUS TESTS USED TO DETERMINE THE TOUGHNESS AND DUCTILITY OF FLAT ROLLED METAL, IN WHICH THE MATERIAL IS BENT AROUND ITS AXIS OR AROUND AN OUTSIDE RADIUS.
BESSEMER PROCESS A PROCESS FOR MAKING STEEL IN WHICH AIR IS BLOWN THROUGH THE MOLTEN IRON SO THAT THE IMPURITIES ARE REMOVED BY OXIDATION.
BILLET (BLOOM) A SOLID SEMI-FINISHED ROUND OR SQUARE PRODUCT THAT HAS BEEN HOT WORKED BY FORGING, ROLLING OR EXTRUSION. THIS PRODUCT IS THEN PROCESSED FURTHER.
BOX ANNEALING ANNEALING A METAL OR ALLOY IN A SEALED CONTAINER UNDER CONDITIONS THAT MINIMIZE OXIDATION.
BLAST FURNACE A VERTICAL SHAFT TYPE OF SMELTING FURNACE IN WHICH AN AIR BLAST IS IS USED. IT PRODUCES PIG IRON ( APPROXIMATELY 92% IRON ,3-1/2% CARBON ).
BLISTER A DEFECT IN THE METAL PRODUCTION WHERE GAS BUBBLES ARE LEFT EITHER ON OR BELOW THE SURFACE OF THE METAL.
BOW (CAMBER) AN EDGEWISE CURVATURE. MEASURED BY LAYING STRIP OR SHEET NEXT TO A STRAIGHT EDGE. THE DEVIATION IS CAMBER.
BRIGHT ANNEALING ANNEALING IN A PROTECTIVE MEDIUM TO PREVENT DISCOLORATION OF THE BRIGHT SURFACE.
BRINELL HARDNESS TEST A TYPE OF HARDNESS TESTING. THE HARDNESS IS DETERMINED BY FORCING A HARD STEEL OR CARBIDE BALL OF SPECIFIED SIZE UNDER SPECIFIC LOAD.
BRITTLE FRACTURE A FRACTURE WITH LITTLE OR NO PLASTIC DEFORMATION.
BUCKLE A DEFECT. ALTERNATING BULGES OR HOLLOWS ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE PRODUCT WITH THE EDGES REMAINING RELATIVELY FLAT
BURNING (BURN MARKS) HEATING A MATERIAL BEYOND ALLOWABLE TEMPERATURE LIMITS. THIS CAUSES MELTING OR INTERGRANULAR OXIDATION. IT MAY APPEAR AS BROWN OR BLUE MARKS ON THE METAL.
BURNISHING SMOOTHING SURFACES THROUGH FRICTION CONTACT BETWEEN THE WORK AND SOME HARD MATERIAL SUCH AS METAL BALLS.
BURR A THIN EDGE OR ROUGHNESS LEFT BY A CUTTING OPERATION SUCH AS SHEARING, SHEARING, BLANKING ETC.
BUTT WELDING JOINING TWO EDGES OR ENDS BY PLACING ONE AGAINST THE OTHER AND WELDING THEM.
CAMBER SEE “BOW”
CANNING SEE “OIL CANNING”
CARBIDE PRECIPITATION THE FORMATION OF METAL CARBIDES WHEN FERROUS METALS ARE RAISED TO HIGH TEMPERATURES (AS IN WELDING). RESULTS IN INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO CORROSION.
CARBON STEEL COMMERCIAL OR ORDINARY STEEL AS OPPOSED TO ALLOYED STEEL. CONTAINS CARBON UP TO 2% .
CARBURIZING ADDING CARBON TO THE SURFACE OF IRON BASED ALLOYS BY ABSORPTION. THE OLDEST FORM OF CASE HARDENING.
CASE HARDENING HARDENING A FERROUS STEEL SO THAT THE OUTER PORTION, OR CASE, IS HARDER THAN ITS CORE.
CAST STEEL OBJECT MADE BY POURING MOLTEN STEEL INTO MOLD.
CHAMFER BEVELING AN EDGE.
CHARPY TEST AN IMPACT TEST. THE METAL IS USUALLY NOTCHED, SUPPORTED AT BOTH ENDS, AND BROKEN BY A FALLING PENDULUM.
CHATTER MARKS A DEFECT. PARALLEL INDENTATIONS OR MARKS APPEARING AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE EDGE AT CLOSE OR REGULAR INTERVALS. CAUSED BY VIBRATIONS WHEN MATERIAL IS BEING ROLLED.
CHEMICAL MILLING REMOVAL OF STOCK BY CONTROLLED CHEMICAL ETCH
CHROMIUM-NICKEL STEEL NORMALLY REFERS TO THE 18% CHROME 8% NICKEL (18-8) STAINLESS STEEL GRADES. — THE 300 SERIES.
CLADDING THE PROCESS OF COVERING ONE METAL WITH ANOTHER. DONE BY WELDING, FUSING, ELECTROPLATING ETC.
COIL FLAT SHEET OR STRIP IN A LONG LENGTH WHICH IS ROLLED INTO COILS.
COIL SET THE STEEL HOLDS THE CURVATURE OF THE COIL AFTER UNWINDING. REMOVED BY ROLLER OR STRETCHER LEVELING.
COINING  IMPRESSING IMAGES OR CHARACTERS OF THE DIE AND PUNCH ONTO A PLAIN METAL SURFACE.
COIL BREAK A DEFECT. CREASES OR RIDGES APPEARING ON SHEETS OR COILS AS PARALLEL LINES CROSS THE WIDTH OF SHEET.
COLD FINISH A SMOOTH FINISH PRODUCED BY COLD WORKING.
COLD ROLLING SIMILAR TO COLD REDUCTION. ROLLING MATERIAL AT A TEMPERATURE BELOW THE SOFTENING POINT OF THE METAL. THIS REDUCES THICKNESS AND INCREASES HARDNESS (COLD WORK)
COLD WORK PLASTIC DEFORMATION BY EXTERNAL FORCE SUCH AS HAMMERING, DRAWING, BENDING WHICH PRODUCES HARDENING OF THE MATERIAL. COMMERCIAL QUALITY STEEL SHEET – STANDARD QUALITY STEEL. WITH A LADLE ANALYSIS OF 0.15 MAX CARBON.
CONCENTRICITY CONFORMANCE TO A COMMON CENTER. ROUNDNESS.
CORROSION THE GRADUAL CHEMICAL OR ELECTRO- MECHANICAL ATTACK ON METAL BY ATMOSPHERE, MOISTURE OR OTHER AGENTS.
CORROSION EMBRITTLEMENT THE SEVERE LOSS OF DUCTILITY OF A METAL RESULTING FROM CORROSIVE ATTACK.
COUPON A PIECE OF METAL FROM WHICH A TEST SPECIMEN MAY BE PREPARED. USUALLY TAKEN FROM AN INTEGRAL PART OF PRODUCT.
CROP CUTTING OFF OF THE DEFECTIVE ENDS OF COIL OR FORGING.
CROSS BREAK DEFECT. TRANSVERSE RIPPLES OR RIBS.
CROWN THE HEAVY OR RAISED CENTER IN A STRIP OR SHEET.
DECARBURIZATION LOSS OF CARBON FROM THE SURFACE OF A FERROUS ALLOY BY HEATING IN OXIDIZING /REDUCING ATMOSPHERE.
DEBURRING BURR REMOVAL BY FILING, ROLLING OR GRINDING.
DISH A CONCAVE SURFACE.
DRAWING 1. FORMING RECESSED PARTS BY FORCING THE PLASTIC FLOW OF METALS IN A DIE. 2. REDUCING THE SIZE OR SHAPE OF A WIRE BY PULLING IT THROUGH A SERIES OF SMALLER DIES.
DRAWN PRODUCT A PRODUCT FORMED BY DRAWING.
DRILL ROD ANNEALED & POLISHED HI-CARBON TOOL STEEL ROD.
DROPPED EDGE A CONTINUOUS DOWNWARD EDGE DEFLECTION.
DUCTILITY THE ABILITY OF A METAL TO BE DEFORMED WITHOUT FRACTURING. MEASURED BY ELONGATION & REDUCTION OF AREA.
EARING WAVY PROJECTIONS FORMED AT THE OPEN END OF A CUP OR SHELL IN THE COURSE OF DEEP DRAWING.
ECCENTRICITY DEVIATION FROM A COMMON CENTER..
EDGING THE DRESSING OF A METAL STRIP. I.E. DEBURRING B – MAX. STRESS TO WHICH MATERIAL MAY BE SUBJECTED TO WITHOUT PERMANENT STRAIN REMAINING.
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY THE CAPACITY OF A MATERIAL TO CONDUCT ELECTRIC CURRENT.
ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY THE ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE OF METAL.
ELONGATION IN TENSILE TESTING, THE INCREASE IN GAGE LENGTH, MEASURED BEFORE FRACTURE OF THE SPECIMEN. GIVEN IN %.
EXFOLIATION A TYPE OF CORROSION THAT PROGRESSES APPROX. – IMATELY PARALLEL TO THE OUTER SURFACE OF THE METAL, CAUSING LAYERS OF THE METAL TO BE ELEVATED BY THE CORROSION .
EMBOSSING RAISING OR INDENTING A DESIGN IN METAL BY PASSING THE METAL THROUGH ROLLERS WITH A PATTERN.
EXTRUSION SHAPING METAL BY PASSING THROUGH SERIES OF DIES.
FATIGUE THE PHENOMENON LEADING TO THE FRACTURE UNDER REPEATED OR FLUCTUATING STRESS. FATIGUE FRACTURES ARE PROGRESSIVE AND MINUTE. CRACKS GROW UNDER STRESS.
FATIGUE STRENGTH THE MAXIMUM STRESS THAT CAN BE SUSTAINED FOR A SPECIFIC NUMBER OF CYCLES WITHOUT FAILURE.
FIBER STRESS LOCAL STRESS THROUGH A SMALL AREA ON A SECTION WHERE THE STRESS IS NOT UNIFORM, … AS A BEAM UNDER LOAD.
FIN STOCK COILED SHEET OR FOIL IN SPECIFIC ALLOYS, AND TEMPERS AND THICKNESS SUITABLE TO MAKE FINS FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS.
FERRALLOY AN ALLOY OF IRON WITH A SUFFICIENT AMOUNT OF SOME ELEMENT OR ELEMENTS SUCH AS MANGANESE, CHROME OR VANADIUM FOR USE AS A MEANS OF ADDING THESE ELEMENTS TO MOLTEN STEEL.
FERROUS IRON BASED ALLOYS.
FLAKES “SHATTER CRACKS” OR “SNOWFLAKES”. SHORT DISCONTINUOUS INTERNAL FISSURES IN FERROUS METALS .
FLAME ANNEALING SOFTENING THE MATERIAL BY THE APPLICATION OF HEAT FROM A HIGH TEMPERATURE FLAME.
FLUTING KINKING OR BREAKAGE DUE TO CURVING OF A METAL STRIP CAUSED BY STRETCHING THE MATERIAL BEYOND ITS ELASTIC LIMIT.
FOIL COIL OR SHEET BELOW THE THICKNESS OF .006
FORGING PLASTICALLY DEFORMING METAL, USUALLY HOT, INTO DESIRED SHAPES WITH COMPRESSIVE FORCE, WITH OR WITHOUT DIES.
FRACTURE SURFACE APPEARANCE WHEN SURFACE IS BROKEN.
FRACTURE TEST  – BREAKING OF THE SURFACE FOR EXAMINATION OF COMPOSITION, GRAIN SIZE, CASE DEPTH AND THE PRESENCE OF DEFECTS
FRACTOGRAPHY DESCRIPTIVE TREATMENT OF FRACTURE WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCE TO PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE FRACTURED SURFACE
FREE MACHINING THE MACHINING CHARACTERISTICS OF A METAL TO TO WHICH AN ALLOY HAS BEEN ADDED, TO FACILITATE MACHINING.
FRETTING ACTION THAT RESULTS IN SURFACE DAMAGE, ESPECIALLY IN A CORROSIVE ENVIRONMENT, WHERE THERE IS RELATIVE MOTION BETWEEN SOLID SURFACES IN CONTACT UNDER PRESSURE.
GAGES STANDARD NUMBERING SYSTEM FOR DECIMALS OR DIAMETERS.
GALLING DAMAGE TO ONE OR BOTH METALLIC SURFACES BY REMOVAL OF PARTICLES DUE TO SEIZURE DURING SLIDING MOTION.
GALVANIC CORROSION CORROSION ASSOCIATED WITH THE CURRENT OF A GALVANIC CELL CONSISTING OF TWO DISSIMILAR CONDUCTORS IN A ELECTROLYTE OR TWO SIMILAR CONDUCTORS IN DISSIMILAR ELECTRO-LYTES.
GRAIN A MANY SIDED CRYSTAL CONSISTING OF GROUPS OF ATOMS, BOUND TOGETHER IN A REGULAR GEOMETRIC PATTERN. USUALLY THE GRAIN IS REPORTED ONLY ON ONE PLANE. THE GRAIN SIZE IS AN INDICATION OF THE DUCTILITY OF THE METAL.
GRAIN GROWTH AN INCREASE IN CRYSTAL SIZE AS ANNEALING TEMPERATURE IS INCREASED.
GRANULAR FRACTURE A TYPE OF IRREGULAR SURFACE PRODUCED WHEN METAL IS BROKEN. IT IS ROUGH AND GRAINY.
GRAPHITIZING ANNEALING A FERROUS METAL IN A WAY THAT SOME OR ALL OF THE CARBON IS PRECIPITATED AS GRAPHITE.
GRINDING CRACKS SHALLOW CRACKS CAUSED BY EXCESSIVE HEAT CAUSED IN GRINDING OR THE SENSITIVITY OF THE MATERIAL.
GUN DRILL A DRILL, USUALLY WITH ONE OR MORE FLUTES AND WITH A COOLANT PASSAGE IN THE DRILL BODY, USED FOR DEEP HOLE DRILLING.
HARD DRAWING DRAWING METAL WIRE THROUGH A DIE TO REDUCE SIZE AND INCREASE TENSILE STRENGTH. SEE COLD WORK.
HARDNESS THE DEGREE TO WHICH METAL WILL RESIST CUTTING, BEND- ING, ABRASION, STRETCHING AND PENETRATION. THERE ARE MANY WAYS OF MEASURING .. I.E. ROCKWELL, VICKERS, BRINELL. TENSILE STRENGTH IS ALSO A WAY OF MEASURING HARDNESS.
HARDENABILITY THE PROPERTY THAT DETERMINES THE DEPTH AND DISTRIBUTION OF HARDNESS INDUCED BY QUENCHING (FERROUS ONLY) HARDENING – INCREASING THE HARDNESS USUALLY BY HEATING AND COOLING IN A PRESCRIBED MANNER FOR THE PARTICULAR ALLOY.
HEAT OF STEEL THE PRODUCT OF A SINGLE MELTING OPERATION AT THE PRODUCING MILL. THE HEAT NUMBER IDENTIFIES THE MELT.
HEAT AFFECTED ZONE THE PORTION OF THE BASE METAL WHICH WAS NOT MELTED IN BRAZING, WELDING OR CUTTING, BUT WHOSE MICRO- STRUCTURE AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES WAS AFFECTED BY HEAT.
HEAT TREATMENT CHANGING THE PROPERTIES OF A METAL BY SUBSEQUENT HEATING AND COOLING.
HERRINGBONE STREAKS ELONGATED ALTERNATE BRIGHT AND DULL MARKINGS AT AN ANGLE TO THE ROLLING DIRECTION AND HAVING THE APPEARANCE OF A HERRINGBONE PATTERN.
HONING REMOVING STOCK GENERALLY ON THE INTERNAL CYLINDRICAL WORKPIECE WITH AN ABRASIVE STICK MOUNTED IN A HOLDER.
IMPACT A PART FORMED IN A PRESS FROM A METAL SLUG IN A DIE, USUALLY COLD AND BY RAPID APPLICATION OF FORCE CAUSING THE METAL TO FLOW AROUND THE PUNCH AND/OR THROUGH AN OPENING IN THE DIE.
IMPACT TEST TEST TO DETERMINE THE RESISTANCE OF METAL TO BREAKAGE BY IMPACT. SEE CHARPY TEST.
INCLUSIONS A DEFECT. PARTICLES OF IMPURITIES IMBEDDED IN STEEL.
INDUCTION HARDENING QUENCH HARDENING BY ELECTRICAL INDUCTION.
INDENTATION HARDNESS A TEST OF HARDNESS BY MEASURING THE PENETRATION OF A POINTED OR ROUNDED INDENTER INTO THE METAL.
INTERLEAVING PLACEMENT OF PAPER BETWEEN LAYERS OF STEEL.
INTERMEDIATE ANNEALING SOFTENING MATERIAL BETWEEN PERIODS WORK HARDENING. EXAMPLE, BETWEEN VERY DEEP DRAWS.
IRON (FE) THE BASIC ELEMENT IN FERROUS STEELS.
ISOTHERMAL ANNEALING PROCESS WHEREBY A FERROUS ALLOY IS HEATED TO PRODUCE A STRUCTURE WHOLLY OR PARTIALLY AUSTENITIC, AND THEN COOLED TO AND HELD AT A TEMPERATURE THAT CAUSES TRANSFORMATION OF THE AUSTENITE TO A RELATIVELY SOFT FERRITE-CARBIDE AGGREGATE.
IZOD TEST AN IMPACT TEST SIMILAR TO THE CHARPY TEST.
LADLE ANALYSIS THE ANALYSIS OF A TEST INGOT SAMPLE OBTAINED DURING THE POURING OF THE STEEL FROM A LADLE.
LAMINATIONS A DEFECT WHICH APPEARS IN SHEETS OR STRIPS AS LAYERS INSTEAD OF A SOLID. CAUSED BY GAS POCKETS IN THE ORIGINAL INGOT. THE LAYERING RUNS THE DIRECTION OF THE ROLLING.
LAP SURFACE DEFECT, APPEARING AS A SEAM, CAUSED BY FOLDING OVER HOT METAL, FINS OR SHARP CORNERS AND THEN ROLLING OR FORGING THEM INTO THE SURFACE.
LAP WELD TWO PIECES OF METAL LAPPED, THEN WELDED. NORMALLY THE EDGES ARE BEVELED OR SCARFED FOR BETTER WELDING.
LEVELING FLATTENING ROLLED METAL BY PASSING IT THROUGH ROLLERS OR BY STRETCHING THE SHEET. (STRETCHER LEVELING)
LIGHT METALS LOW-DENSITY METALS SUCH AS ALUMINUM, MAGNESIUM, TITANIUM, BERYLLIUM OR OTHER ALLOYS.
LOW CARBON STEELS STEEL WHICH CONTAINS 0.10 – 0.30 % CARBON, AND LESS THAN 0.60% MANGANESE.
M B GRADE A STEEL WIRE (.45/.75 C) WIDELY USED FOR SPRINGS.
MACHINABILITY THE RELATIVE EASE OF MACHINING A METAL.
MACHINABILITY INDEX STANDARDIZED TEST OF RELATIVE MACHINABILITY.
MACRO-ETCH TEST EVALUATES THE SOUNDNESS AND HOMOGENEITY OF MATERIAL BY IMMERSING A SAMPLE OF THE STEEL IN HOT ACID AND EXAMINING THE ETCHING.
MACROSCOPIC VISUAL INSPECTION WITH EITHER THE NAKED EYE OR UNDER LOW MAGNIFICATION.
MAGNETIC-PARTICLE INSPECTION A NONDESTRUCTIVE METHOD OF INSPECTION TO DETERMINE THE EXISTENCE AND EXTENT OF POSSIBLE DEFECTS IN FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS.
MALLEABILITY THE PROPERTY THAT DETERMINES THE EASE OF DE- FORMING A METAL WHEN THE METAL IS SUBJECTED TO ROLLING OR HAMMERING. THE MORE MALLEABLE, THE EASIER TO WORK.
MARTENSITE A DISTINCTIVE NEEDLE-LIKE STRUCTURE EXISTING IN STEEL AS A TRANSITION STAGE IN THE TRANSFORMATION OF AUSTENITE. IT IS THE HARDEST CONSTITUENT OF STEEL OF EUTECTOID COMPOSITE- ITION. IT IS THE CHIEF COMPOSITION OF HARDENED TOOL STEEL.
MATTE OR MATTE FINISH NOT AS SMOOTH AS NORMAL MILL FINISH. PRODUCED BY ETCHING OR BY ROLLING WITH ROUGHENED ROLLS.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES THE PROPERTIES OF A MATERIAL THAT REVEAL ITS ELASTIC AND INELASTIC BEHAVIOR WHEN FORCE IS APPLIED, THEREBY INDICATING ITS SUITABILITY FOR MECHANICAL APPLICATIONS: FOR EXAMPLE , MODULUS OF ELASTICITY, TENSILE STRENGTH, ELONGATION, HARDNESS AND FATIGUE LIMIT.
MICROSTRUCTURE THE STRUCTURE OF POLISHED AND ETCHED METALS AS REVEALED BY A MICROSCOPIC MAGNIFICATION OF 10 DIAMETERS OR MORE.
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY A MEASURE OF THE RIGIDITY OF METAL. ALSO CALLED THE “COEFFICIENT OF ELASTICITY”.
METALLOID IN STEEL IT COVERS ELEMENTS COMMONLY PRESENT IN SIMPLE STEEL.. CARBON, MANGANESE, PHOSPHORUS, SILICON AND SULFUR.
MILL EDGE EDGE OF SHEET, PLATE OR STRIP WHICH IS UNTRIMMED
MILL FINISH AS PRODUCED BY MILL. NORMALLY DULL.
MUNTZ METAL A REFRACTORY METAL. 60 % COPPER AND 40% ZINC. USED FOR CASTINGS AND HOT-WORKED PRODUCTS. HIGH STRENGTH BRASSES ARE DEVELOPED FROM THIS BY ADDING OTHER ELEMENTS.
MUSIC WIRE THIS IS THE HIGHEST TENSILE (POLISHED) WIRE MADE.
NICKEL SILVER COPPER BASED ALLOY WITH 20-45% ZINC AND 5-30% NICKEL.
NIOBIUM (Nb) SEE COLUMBIUM NITRIDING – INTRODUCING NITROGEN TO HARDEN FERROUS STEEL.
NITRIDING STEEL STEEL WHICH IS PARTICULARLY SUITED FOR THE NIT- RIDING PROCESS. IT FORMS A VERY HARD AND ADHERENT SURFACE UPON PROPER NITRIDING. (.20-.40 C, .90-1.50 Ch, .15-1.0 Mo, .85-1.20 AL)
NON-FERROUS METALS METALS WITH NO OR LITTLE IRON.
NORMALIZING HEATING A FERROUS ALLOY TO A SUITABLE TEMP- ATURE ABOVE THE TRANSFORMATION RANGE AND THEN COOLING IN AIR TO A TEMPERATURE SUBSTANTIALLY BELOW TRANSFORMATION RANGE. IT REFINES THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AND RELIEVES STRESS
OIL HARDENING STEEL  STEEL WHICH IS HARDENED BY HEAT TREATMENT AND QUENCHED IN OIL.
OLSON TEST A METHOD OF MEASURING THE DUCTILITY AND DRAWING PROPERTIES OF STRIP OR SHEET METAL. THE METAL IS DRAWN OVER A BALL UNTIL THERE IS A FRACTURE.
OPEN HEARTH FURNACE A TYPE FURNACE WHERE THE FLAME PASSES OVER THE CHARGE IN THE HEARTH, CAUSING THE CHARGE TO BE HEATED BOTH BY DIRECT FLAME AND RADIATION FROM THE LOW ROOF AND SIDEWALLS OF THE FURNACE.
ORANGE PEEL THE PEBBLE-GRAINED SURFACE WHICH DEVELOPS IN FORMING OF METALS WITH COURSE GRAINS.
OSCILLATED WOUND COIL WOUND ON A REEL LIKE THREAD, AS OPPOSED TO RIBBON OR PANCAKE WOUND WHICH IS WOUND SIMILAR TO A ROLL OF TAPE.
ORIENTATION HAS TO DO WITH THE ARRANGEMENT OF CRYSTAL DIRECTION IN A PLANE. EITHER “PREFERRED ” OR “RANDOM”.
OXIDATION THE ADDING OF OXYGEN TO A COMPOUND. EXPOSURE TO ATMOSPHERE SOMETIMES RESULTS IN OXIDATION OF THE EXPOSED SURFACE RESULTING IN A STAINING OR DISCOLORATION. INCREASED TEMPERATURE INCREASES THE OXIDATION.
OXIDE A COMPOUND OF OXYGEN WITH ANOTHER ELEMENT.
PACK ROLLING ROLLING TWO OR MORE PIECES OF STEEL TOGETHER. PACK ROLLING IS OFTEN USED FOR ROLLING SHEET INTO THIN FOIL.
PASSIVATING THE CLEANING OF METAL OR PART BY IMMERSION IN A ACID BATH. USUALLY DONE AFTER FABRICATION.
PENETRANT INSPECTION NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST TO CHECK FOR THE EXISTENCE OR EXTENT OF DISCONTINUITIES THAT ARE OPEN TO THE SURFACE. A PENETRATING DYE IS USED FOR THIS TEST.
PERMALLOY NICKEL ALLOYS CONTAINING ABOUT 20 -60% FE, USED FOR THEIR HIGH MAGNETIC PERMEABILITY AND ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY.
PERMANENT SET THE DEFORMATION OF METAL UNDER STRESS, THAT OCCURS AFTER PASSING ITS ELASTIC LIMIT.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES THE PROPERTIES, OTHER THAN MECHANICAL, THAT PERTAIN TO THE PHYSICS OF A MATERIAL. I.E. DENSITY, HEAT AND ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, THERMAL EXPANSION ETC.
PICKLING REMOVING SURFACE OXIDES FROM METALS BY CHEMICAL OR ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTION. IN STAINLESS IT TURNS MATERIAL GRAY.
PIN EXPANSION TEST A TEST FOR DETERMINING THE ABILITY OF TUBES TO BE EXPANDED OR FOR REVEALING THE PRESENCE OF CRACKS OR LONGITUDINAL WEAKNESS.
PIN HOLES MICROSCOPIC IMPERFECTIONS IN THE SURFACE OR THROUGH A LAYER OR THICKNESS OF METAL.
PIPE 1) A TUBULAR METAL PRODUCT. 2) DEFECT. A CAVITY IN A CASTING BILLET OR INGOT CAUSED BY CONTRACTION OR SHRINKAGE.
PITTING SMALL SHARP CAVITIES IN A METAL SURFACE.
PLANIMETRIC METHOD A METHOD OF MEASURING GRAIN SIZE. THE GRAINS WITHIN A SPECIFIC AREA ARE COUNTED.
PLASTIC DEFORMATION SEE PERMANENT SET
PLASTICITY THE ABILITY OF A METAL TO BE DEFORMED EXTENSIVELY WITHOUT RUPTURE.
PLATING A THIN COAT OF METAL LAID ON ANOTHER METAL BY ELECTRO- PLATING, GALVANIZING, TINNING, ETC.
POT ANNEALING SEE BOX ANNEALING
POWDER METALLURGY THE ART OF PRODUCING POWDERED METALS AN UTILIZING METAL POWDERS FOR PRODUCTION OF PARTS.
PRECIPITATION HARDENING HARDENING CAUSED BY THE PRECIPITATION OF A CONSTITUENT FROM A SUPERSATURATED SOLID SOLUTION.
PRECIPITATION HEAT TREATMENT RELATES TO NON-FERROUS METAL ANY OF THE VARIOUS AGING TREATMENTS, DONE AT ELEVATED TEMP- ERATURES TO IMPROVE CERTAIN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES.
PRIME MATERIAL FREE FROM VISIBLE SURFACE DEFECTS.
PROCESS ANNEALING THE FERROUS ALLOY IS HEATED TO A TEMPER- ATURE JUST BELOW THE LOWER LIMIT OF THE TRANSFORMATION TEMPERATURE AND THEN COOLED. THIS SOFTENS THE MATERIAL.
PROOF STRESS 1) THE STRESS THAT WILL CAUSE A SPECIFIED SMALL PERMANENT SET IN A MATERIAL. 2) A SPECIFIED STRESS TO BE APPLIED TO A MEMBER OR STRUCTURE TO INDICATE ITS ABILITY TO WITHSTAND SERVICE LOADS.
PULSE-ECHO METHOD A NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST IN WHICH PULSES OF ENERGY ARE DIRECTED INTO A PART AND THE TIME FOR THE ECHO TO TO RETURN FROM ONE OR MORE REFLECTING SURFACE IS MEASURED.
PUNCH MOVABLE PART THAT FORCES METAL INTO A DIE. USED FOR BLANKING, COINING, EMBOSSING, DRAWING, STAMPING, ETC.
QUENCHING THE STEP OF COOLING METALS QUICKLY. THE QUENCHING CAN BE DONE IN WATER OR OIL.
RADIOGRAPHY A NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD IN INTERNAL EXAMINATION. METAL OBJECTS ARE EXPOSED TO X-RAYS OR GAMMA RADIATION.
RECRYSTALLIZATION A PROCESS WHERE DISTORTED GRAIN STRUCTURES IN COLD WORKED METAL IS REPLACED BY NEW, STRESS FREE GRAIN STRUCTURES BY CERTAIN ANNEALING PROCESSES.
REFINING TEMPERATURE A TEMPERATURE USED IN HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL TO REFINE THE STRUCTURE AND GRAIN SIZE.
REFRACTORY A HEAT RESISTANT MATERIAL, USUALLY NONMETALLIC, WHICH IS USED FOR FURNACE LINING.
REFRACTORY ALLOY METAL WITH EXTREMELY HIGH MELTING POINT.
RESIDUAL STRESS MACROSCOPIC STRESSES THAT ARE SET UP WITHIN A METAL AS A RESULT OF NON-UNIFORM PLASTIC DEFORMATION.
RESIDUALS THE “TRACE” ELEMENTS NOT NAMED IN SPECIFICATIONS. THEY ARE THE RESULT OF CONTAMINATED SCRAP.
RIBBON WOUND STRIP WOUND LAYER ON TOP OF LAYER…AS A ROLL OF TAPE. THIS TYPE OF ROLLING IS DONE AROUND A CORE.
RIPPLE DEFECT. SLIGHT TRAVERSE WAVE OR SHADOW APPEARING AT INTERVALS ALONG THE STRIP OR SHEET.
ROCKWELL HARDNESS A STANDARD METHOD OF MEASURING HARD- NESS. IT IS A MEASUREMENT OF PENETRATION UNDER SPECIFIC LOAD.
ROLLED EDGE THE DEBURRING OF AN EDGE BY A SYSTEM OF ROLLERS WHICH SHAPE THE EDGE OF THE MATERIAL.
ROTARY SHEAR A CUTTING MACHINE WITH SHARPENED CIRCULAR BLADES. A SLITTER.
SALT FOG (SPRAY) TEST A CORROSION TEST IN WHICH THE METAL IS SUBJECTED TO A FINE MIST OF SALT WATER.
SCAB A BLEMISH ON A CASTING.
SCALING  1) LAYERS OF OXIDATION 2) THE REMOVAL OF SCALE FROM METAL
SCALPING THE SURFACE MATCHING OF SURFACE LAYERS OF INGOTS, BILLETS AND SLABS BEFORE MACHINING.
SCARFING CUTTING OR GRINDING OUT DEFECTS FROM INGOTS, BILLETS, OR THE EDGES OF PLATES THAT ARE TO BE BEVELED FOR BUTT WELDING.
SCLEROSCOPE HARDNESS TEST A HARDNESS TEST IN WHICH A DIAMOND POINTED HAMMER IS DROPPED ONTO METAL AND THE HEIGHT OF THE BOUNCE IS MEASURED.
SCREW STOCK FREE MACHINING BAR, ROD OR WIRE.
SKELP A PIECE OR STRIP OF METAL PRODUCED TO A SUITABLE THICKNESS, WIDTH AND EDGE FROM WHICH PIPE OR TUBING IS MADE.
SEAM  A CRACK ON THE SURFACE OF METAL THAT HAS BEEN CLOSED, BUT NOT WELDED. IT IS CAUSED IN CASTING OR WORKING.
SECONDS A DESIGNATION GIVEN TO MATERIAL THAT HAS SURFACE DEFECTS. MATERIAL OF LESS THAN PRIME QUALITY.
SECONDARY HARDENING TEMPERING CERTAIN ALLOY STEELS AT CERTAIN TEMPERATURES SO THAT THE RESULTING HARDNESS IS GREATER THAT THAT OBTAINED BY TEMPERING THE SAME STEEL AT SOME LOWER TEMPERATURE FOR THE SAME TIME.
SEGREGATION NON-UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS, IMPURITIES OR MICROPHASES.
SHEAR A MACHINE FOR CUTTING STEEL.
SHEAR STRENGTH THE STRESS REQUIRED TO PRODUCE FRACTURE IN THE PLANE OF A PIECE OF METAL.
SHEAR CRACK A CRACK OR FRACTURE CAUSED BY SHEAR STRESS.
SHIM A THIN (HARD) FLAT METAL USED FOR TOOL, DIE AND MACHINE ALIGNMENT PURPOSES.
SHORE HARDNESS TEST SEE SCLEROSCOPE HARDNESS TEST
SHORT BRITTLE
SHORTNESS A FORM OF BRITTLENESS IN METAL. IT IS DESIGNATED AS AS “COLD,” “HOT,” “AND “RED” TO INDICATED THE TEMPERATURE RANGE IN WHICH THE BRITTLENESS OCCURS.
SILKY FRACTURE A VERY SMOOTH FINE GRAIN SILKY APPEARING FRACTURE.
SILVER SOLDERS ALLOYS OF SILVER, COPPER, ZINC AND OTHER METALS USED FOR MAKING STRONG YET MODERATELY DUCTILE JOINTS THAT RESIST CORROSION.
SINTERING CONVERTING METAL POWDER INTO A MASS BY HEATING AFTER COMPRESSING.
SKIN A THIN SURFACE LAYER THAT IS DIFFERENT FROM THE MAIN MASS OF METAL IN COMPOSITION, STRUCTURE OR OTHER CHARACTERISTICS .
SLAB SEE BLOOM
SLIT EDGE THE EDGE RESULTING FROM A SLITTING OPERATION.
SLIVER– DEFECT LOOSE METAL PIECE ROLLED INTO THE SURFACE OF THE METAL DURING THE ROLLING OPERATION.
SLUG A METAL BLANK FOR FORGING OR IMPACTING.
SOAKING PROLONGED HEATING OF METAL AT SELECTED TEMPERATURE.
SOLID SOLUTION A SINGLE SOLID HOMOGENEOUS CRYSTALINE PHASE CONTAINING TWO OR MORE CHEMICAL SPECIES.
SOLUTION HEAT TREATMENT HEATING AN ALLOY TO A SUITABLE TEMPERATURE, HOLDING AT THAT TEMPERATURE LONG ENOUGH TO ALLOW ONE OR MORE CONSTITUENTS TO ENTER INTO SOLID HEATING SOLUTION.
SORBITE STRUCTURE OF STEEL, RESULTING FROM THE TEMPERING OF MARTENSITE.
SPALLING THE CRACKING AND FLAKING OF PARTICLES OF A SURFACE.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY A NUMERICAL VALUE REPRESENTING THE WEIGHT OF A GIVEN SUBSTANCE AS COMPARED WITH THE WEIGHT OF AN EQUAL VOLUME OF WATER.
SPHERODIZING HEATING AND COOLING TO PRODUCE A SPHERICAL OR GLOBULAR FORM OF CARBON IN STEEL.
STABILIZING TREATMENT A THERMAL PROCESS INTENDED TO STABILIZE THE STRUCTURE OF AN ALLOY OR DIMENSIONS OF A PART.
STAINLESS STEEL CORROSION RESISTANT STEEL IN A WIDE VARIETY OF TYPES, BUT ALWAYS CONTAINING A LARGE AMOUNT OF CHROMIUM.
STAMPING A TERM USED TO REFER TO VARIOUS PRESS FORMING OPERATIONS IN COINING, EMBOSSING, BLANKING AND PRESSING.
STICKER THE ADHERING OF STEEL SHEET OR STRIP. USUALLY CAUSED BY OVERHEATING DURING BOX ANNEALING.
STRAIN  DEFORMATION PRODUCED ON A BODY BY AN OUTSIDE FORCE.
STRAIN AGING AGING INDUCED BY COLD WORKING. SEE AGING.
STRAIN HARDENING AN INCREASE IN HARDNESS AND STRENGTH CAUSED BY PLASTIC DEFORMATION AT LOWER THAN THE RECRYSTALLIZATION RANGE.
STRESS RELIEVING HEATING TO A SUITABLE TEMPERATURE, HOLDING LONG ENOUGH TO REDUCE RESIDUAL STRESSES AND THEN COOLING SLOWLY ENOUGH TO MINIMIZE DEVELOPING NEW RESIDUAL STRESSES.
STRETCH FORMING FORMING PANELS AND COWLS OF LARGE CURVATURE BY STRETCHING SHEET OVER A FORM OF DESIRED SHAPE. THIS IS MORE RAPID THAN HAMMERING AND BEATING.
TERNARY ALLOY AN ALLOY THAT CONTAINS 3 PRINCIPLE ELEMENTS.
TERNE PLATE SHEET STEEL, COATED WITH LEAD-TIN ALLOY.
TOLERANCE  PERMISSIBLE DEVIATION FROM A SPECIFIED DIMENSION.
TOOLING PLATE  A CAST OR ROLLED PRODUCT OF RECTANGULAR CROSS SECTION OF THICKNESS OF 1/4″ OR GREATER, AND WITH EDGES EITHER AS CAST, SHEARED OR SAWED, WITH INTERNAL STRESS LEVELS CONTROLLED TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM STABILITY FOR MACHINING PURPOSES IN TOOL & JIG APPLICATIONS.
TORSION A TWISTING ACTION RESULTING IN SHEAR STRESSES & STRAIN.
TOUGHNESS  ABILITY TO RESIST FRACTURING OR DISTORTION.
TRACE EXTREMELY SMALL QUANTITY OF AN ELEMENT, USUALLY TOO SMALL TO DETERMINE QUANTITATIVELY.
TRANSFORMATION RANGE TEMPERATURE RANGE OVER WHICH A CHEMICAL OR METALLURGICAL CHANGE TAKES PLACE.
TRANSVERSE LITERALLY “ACROSS,” USUALLY MEANING A DIRECTION PERPENDICULAR TO THE DIRECTION OF WORKING OR ROLLING.
TUMBLING CLEANING ARTICLES BY ROTATING THEM IN A CYLINDER WITH CLEANING MATERIALS.
ULTIMATE STRENGTH SEE “TENSILE STRENGTH.”
UPSETTING 1) A METAL WORKING OPERATION SIMILAR TO FORGING 2) THE PROCESS OF AXIAL FLOW UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION OF METAL, AS IN FORMING HEADS ON RIVETS BY FLATTENING THE END OF WIRE.
VACUUM MELTING MELTING IN A VACUUM TO PREVENT CONTAMINATION FROM AIR AS WELL AS TO REMOVE GASES ALREADY DISSOLVED IN THE METAL: THE SOLIDIFICATION MAY ALSO BE CARRIED OUT IN A VACUUM OR AT LOW PRESSURE.
VENT MARK A SMALL PROTRUSION ON A FORGING OR CASTING RESULTING FROM THE ENTRANCE OF METAL INTO A DIE OR MOLD VENT HOLES.
VIBRATED WOUND SEE “OSCILLATED WOUND COILS”
VICKERS HARDNESS (TEST) A HARDNESS TEST FOR METALS, ESPECIALLY THOSE WITH EXTREMELY HARD SURFACES. IT USES A DIAMOND PENETRATOR.
 
WASTERS CARBON STEELS. DEFECTIVE SHEETS.. MAYBE THE ENDS OF LARGE COILS.
 
WATER HARDENING HIGH CARBON STEELS THAT ARE WATER QUENCHED AFTER HEAT TREATING
WAVY DEFECT. A SLIGHT OR SIGNIFICANT WAVE BEYOND STANDARDS SET FOR FLATNESS.
WEDGE SHAPED A STRIP WHICH IS THINNER ON ONE SIDE THAN THE OTHER SIDE. ONE OF SEVERAL REASONS FOR CAMBER.
WELDING A PROCESS OF JOINING TWO PIECES OF STEEL USING HEAT.
 
WORK HARDENING SEE COLD WORKING.
WROUGHT IRON IRON CONTAINING ONLY A SMALL AMOUNT OF OTHER ELEMENTS. IT IS MORE RUST RESISTANT FROM STEEL AND FORMS AND WELDS EASIER.
 
YIELD POINT THE LOAD PER UNIT OF ORIGINAL CROSS SECTION AT WHICH, IN SOFT STEEL, A MARKED INCREASE IN DEFORMATION OCCURS WITHOUT AN INCREASE IN LOAD. ONLY CERTAIN METALS EXHIBIT A YIELD POINT. IF THERE IS A DECREASE IN STRESS AFTER YIELDING, A DISTINCTION MAY BE MADE BETWEEN UPPER AND LOWER YIELD POINTS.
YIELD STRENGTH THE STRESS AT WHICH A MATERIAL EXHIBITS A SPECIFIED DEVIATION FROM PROPORTIONALITY OF STRESS AND STRAIN. AN OFFSET OF 2% IS USED FOR MANY METALS.
YOUNG’S MODULUS THE COEFFICIENT OF ELASTICITY OF STRETCHING.

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